Archive for the ‘information science’ category

Nov 25, 2021

Negative Energy, Quantum Information and Causality — Adam Levine

Posted by in categories: engineering, information science, particle physics, quantum physics

Friends Lunch with a Member.

Topic: Negative Energy, Quantum Information and Causality.
Speaker: Adam Levine.
Date: November 19, 2021

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Nov 25, 2021

What can Artificial Intelligence do?

Posted by in categories: biological, Elon Musk, information science, robotics/AI, supercomputing, transportation

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You are on the PRO Robots channel and in this video we will talk about artificial intelligence. Repeating brain structure, mutual understanding and mutual assistance, self-learning and rethinking of biological life forms, replacing people in various jobs and cheating. What have neural networks learned lately? All new skills and superpowers of artificial intelligence-based systems in one video!

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Nov 25, 2021

Robots and AI assist in designing and building Swiss university’s ‘hanging gardens’

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, information science, robotics/AI

Architecture and construction have always been, rather quietly, at the bleeding edge of tech and materials trends. It’s no surprise, then, especially at a renowned technical university like ETH Zurich, to find a project utilizing AI and robotics in a new approach to these arts. The automated design and construction they are experimenting with show how homes and offices might be built a decade from now.

The project is a sort of huge sculptural planter, “hanging gardens” inspired by the legendary structures in the ancient city of Babylon. (Incidentally, it was my ancestor, Robert Koldewey, who excavated/looted the famous Ishtar Gate to the place.)

Begun in 2019, Semiramis (named after the queen of Babylon back then) is a collaboration between human and AI designers. The general idea of course came from the creative minds of its creators, architecture professors Fabio Gramazio and Matthias Kohler. But the design was achieved by putting the basic requirements, such as size, the necessity of watering and the style of construction, through a set of computer models and machine learning algorithms.

Nov 25, 2021

Microsoft Research Introduces ‘Tutel’: A High-Performance MoE Library To Facilitate The Development Of Large-Scale DNN (Deep Neural Network) Models

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

Tutel is a high-performance MoE library developed by Microsoft researchers to aid in the development of large-scale DNN (Deep Neural Network) models; Tutel is highly optimized for the new Azure NDm A100 v4 series, and Tutel’s diverse and flexible MoE algorithmic support allows developers across AI domains to execute MoE more easily and efficiently. Tutel achieves an 8.49x speedup on an NDm A100 v4 node with 8 GPUs and a 2.75x speedup on 64 NDm A100 v4 nodes with 512 A100 GPUs compared to state-of-the-art MoE implementations like Meta’s Facebook AI Research Sequence-to-Sequence Toolkit (fairseq) in PyTorch for a single MoE layer.

Tutel delivers a more than 40% speedup for Meta’s 1.1 trillion–parameter MoE language model with 64 NDm A100 v4 nodes for end-to-end performance, thanks to optimization for all-to-all communication. When working on the Azure NDm A100 v4 cluster, Tutel delivers exceptional compatibility and comprehensive capabilities to assure outstanding performance. Tutel is free and open-source software that has been integrated into fairseq.

Tutel is a high-level MoE solution that complements existing high-level MoE solutions like fairseq and FastMoE by focusing on the optimizations of MoE-specific computation and all-to-all communication and other diverse and flexible algorithmic MoE supports. Tutel features a straightforward user interface that makes it simple to combine with other MoE systems. Developers can also use the Tutel interface to include independent MoE layers into their own DNN models from the ground up, taking advantage of the highly optimized state-of-the-art MoE features right away.

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Nov 24, 2021

Enhancing the workhorse: Artificial intelligence, hardware innovations boost confocal microscope’s performance

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, food, information science, robotics/AI

Since artificial intelligence pioneer Marvin Minsky patented the principle of confocal microscopy in 1957, it has become the workhorse standard in life science laboratories worldwide, due to its superior contrast over traditional wide-field microscopy. Yet confocal microscopes aren’t perfect. They boost resolution by imaging just one, single, in-focus point at a time, so it can take quite a while to scan an entire, delicate biological sample, exposing it light dosages that can be toxic.

To push confocal imaging to an unprecedented level of performance, a collaboration at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) has invented a “kitchen sink” confocal platform that borrows solutions from other high-powered imaging systems, adds a unifying thread of “Deep Learning” artificial intelligence algorithms, and successfully improves the confocal’s volumetric resolution by more than 10-fold while simultaneously reducing phototoxicity. Their report on the technology, called “Multiview Confocal Super-Resolution Microscopy,” is published online this week in Nature.

“Many labs have confocals, and if they can eke more performance out of them using these artificial intelligence algorithms, then they don’t have to invest in a whole new microscope. To me, that’s one of the best and most exciting reasons to adopt these AI methods,” said senior author and MBL Fellow Hari Shroff of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering.

Nov 24, 2021

How AI Is Deepening Our Understanding of the Brain

Posted by in categories: biological, information science, robotics/AI

Artificial neural networks are famously inspired by their biological counterparts. Yet compared to human brains, these algorithms are highly simplified, even “cartoonish.”

Can they teach us anything about how the brain works?

For a panel at the Society for Neuroscience annual meeting this month, the answer is yes. Deep learning wasn’t meant to model the brain. In fact, it contains elements that are biologically improbable, if not utterly impossible. But that’s not the point, argues the panel. By studying how deep learning algorithms perform, we can distill high-level theories for the brain’s processes—inspirations to be further tested in the lab.

Nov 23, 2021

China’s AI giant SenseTime readies Hong Kong IPO

Posted by in categories: business, information science, robotics/AI, surveillance

One of China’s biggest AI solution providers SenseTime is a step closer to its initial public offering. SenseTime has received regulatory approval to list on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, according to media reports. Founded in 2014, SenseTime was christened as one of China’s four “AI Dragons” alongside Megvii, CloudWalk, and Yitu. In the second half of the 2010s, their algorithms found much demand from businesses and governments hoping to turn real-life data into actionable insights. Cameras embedded with their AI models watch city streets 24 hours. Malls use their sensing solutions to track and predict crowds on the premises.

SenseTime’s three rivals have all mulled plans to sell shares either in mainland China or Hong Kong. Megvii is preparing to list on China’s Nasdaq-style STAR board after its HKEX application lapsed.

The window for China’s data-rich tech firms to list overseas has narrowed. Beijing is making it harder for companies with sensitive data to go public outside China. And regulators in the West are wary of facial recognition companies that could aid mass surveillance.

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Nov 23, 2021

The Mathematical Structure of Particle Collisions Comes Into View

Posted by in categories: computing, information science, mathematics, particle physics, quantum physics

And that’s where physicists are getting stuck.

Zooming in to that hidden center involves virtual particles — quantum fluctuations that subtly influence each interaction’s outcome. The fleeting existence of the quark pair above, like many virtual events, is represented by a Feynman diagram with a closed “loop.” Loops confound physicists — they’re black boxes that introduce additional layers of infinite scenarios. To tally the possibilities implied by a loop, theorists must turn to a summing operation known as an integral. These integrals take on monstrous proportions in multi-loop Feynman diagrams, which come into play as researchers march down the line and fold in more complicated virtual interactions.

Physicists have algorithms to compute the probabilities of no-loop and one-loop scenarios, but many two-loop collisions bring computers to their knees. This imposes a ceiling on predictive precision — and on how well physicists can understand what quantum theory says.

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Nov 22, 2021

Quantum computers to explore precision oncology

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry, computing, information science, quantum physics

The most promising application in biomedicine is in computational chemistry, where researchers have long exploited a quantum approach. But the Fraunhofer Society hopes to spark interest among a wider community of life scientists, such as cancer researchers, whose research questions are not intrinsically quantum in nature.

“It’s uncharted territory,” says oncologist Niels Halama of the DKFZ, Germany’s national cancer center in Heidelberg. Working with a team of physicists and computer scientists, Halama is planning to develop and test algorithms that might help stratify cancer patients, and select small subgroups for specific therapies from heterogeneous data sets.

This is important for precision medicine, he says, but classic computing has insufficient power to find very small groups in the large and complex data sets that oncology, for example, generates. The time needed to complete such a task may stretch out over many weeks—too long to be of use in a clinical setting, and also too expensive. Moreover, the steady improvements in the performance of classic computers are slowing, thanks in large part to fundamental limits on chip miniaturization.

Nov 22, 2021

The Algorithm That Lets Particle Physicists Count Higher Than Two

Posted by in categories: information science, particle physics

Through his encyclopedic study of the electron, an obscure figure named Stefano Laporta found a handle on the subatomic world’s fearsome complexity. His algorithm has swept the field.

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